• What is Deep Ecology?
    Through deep experience, deep questioning and deep commitment emerges deep ecology By Stephan Harding * IN THE 1960s, HAVING read Rachel Carson’s book, Silent Spring, Arne Naess was moved to apply his formidable philosophical skills to understanding the ecological crisis and its resolution. Since becoming the youngest-ever professor of philosophy at the University of Oslo … Read more
  • Essay: The Ecological Self by John Seed
    The Trumpeter ISSN: 0832-6193 Volume 22, Number 2 (2006) The Ecological Self John Seed In this article John explores some of the key issues in deep Ecology, his own experience as an activist and facilitator of the work. In the 1970s, when Jerry Brown was Governor of California, the eco-poet Gary Snyder was working in … Read more
  • Article: “What is Deep Ecology Philosophy” at
    Back in 2021, this helpful article about deep ecology was published on It in includes an overview of the history of the movement, as well as a concise summary of criticisms that Deep Ecology has attracted over the years. Deep ecology, a movement initiated by Norwegian philosopher Arne Næss in 1972, posits two main … Read more
  • Article: The Shallow and the Deep, long-Range Ecology Movement, A Summary, by Arne Naess
    The emergence of ecologists from their formerrelative obscurity marks a turning point in ourscientific communities. Their message, however,is twisted and misused. A shallow, but currentlyrather powerful movement, and a deep, but less influen-tial movement compete for our attention. I shall makean effort to characterize the two Arne Naess, Inquiry 16 See below for an embedded … Read more
  • Article: Self-Realization Beyond the Human: Arne Næss and Norwegian Deep Ecology
    As if this simplicity and inaccessibility were not enough, Næss built, with his own hands, a three-by-three-meter refuge some 200 meters higher up on the crags of the Hallingskarvet massif, which he dubbed “Skarveredet” (roughly meaning “a nest” in a mountain “notch”). By his own admission, this bivouac-like sanctuary gave him “‘the feeling[s] of being … Read more